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Cellular Mobile Communication Technology
Let's we will see the technology behind Cellular mobile communication. When we speak on our phone to another phone, our voice is pickup by our phone microphone.
The microphones of our mobile phone that turns voice into a digital signal with the help of a MEMS sensor and integrated IC.
The signal of digital that contains your voice in the form of 0 and 1.
Electromagnetic waves have sent 0 and 1 by using altering the wave characteristics. such as the phase, frequency, amplitude, or combinations of these.
We look as an example, in case of frequency, 0 and 1 transmitted by using low frequency and high frequency.
If you find a way to send these electromagnetic waves to your friend or other phones. you would establish a call.
But, the waves that are incapable of traveling long distances that is electromagnetic.
It may be lost strength due to the presence of any electrical equipment. physical objects, and some environmental factors.
In fact, even then, electromagnetic waves would not carry on forever.
To overcome issues such as introduced in all cell towered, using the cellular technology concept.
In cellular technology, as per the area that is divided into various hexagonal cells. every cell is having of its own frequency slot and electric transmission tower.
These cables of optical fiber did the ocean or under the ground. to provide national connectivity.
These signals are vice-versa process, and your friend easily hears your voice.
Every mobile phone communications are not wireless.
This is how mobile phone communications are carried out.
Yet, there was a big issue that we left unanswered. when that tower is transferring the signal to your phone or friend pone tower.
Everyone thinks of this which cell tower area that your friend is located in?
The process is as the tower cell gets the help from switching hub called as a mobile cellular switching center.
The center point of group of cell towers is MSC.
Now we need to understand. In which the cell location that subscriber is within the area of MSE, the uses a very few techniques.
The last one of these is when the phone turned on.
Let's we will see the example to understand procedures. Suppose, A wants to call B. When A dials the B number, the request call arrives at A home MSC.
When receiving B number, then the request will before awarded to B home MSC.
Now, A checks for his current MSC. If A is in his home of MSC, the requests call will immediately be sent to his phone location.
And we can check the A is engaged on another call, or his mobile switched off.
If everything is positive, suppose x people phone rings, and the call will connect.
But, if x people is not in his home MSC, x's home MSC forwards the call request to the foreign MSC.
To transfer the 0 and 1 in digital form, every user allocated to any frequency range.
But, the frequency spectrum range available for Cellular mobile communication limited.
And there are many users who connect at a time.
Why are there different generations of mobile phone technologies? 1G users to allow, for the first time to carry a phone without a cable attached to it.
But 1G has many problems. Analog signals that altered by external sources.
These factors paved the way for the second generation of mobile communications.
2G used digital many access technologies, name as TDMA, or CDMA technology.
To achieve this, the 3G speed of two Mbps allowed the transfer of data for uses such as GPS, videos, voice calls, et cetera.
3G was a huge step in the transformation of the basic phone to a smartphone. Next came 4G, which achieved speeds of 20 to 100 Mbps.
MIMO uses many transmitter-receiver antennas inside both the mobile phone and the towers.
Next-generation is 5G of mobile phone communication. You can view current 4G details. To roll out soon, it will use MIMO technology and millimeter waves.
But let’s back up a bit. When you press send on WhatsApp. You are sending instructions to your mobile processor. via tiny copper wires on a printed circuit board on your smartphone.
Now, these instructions are electrical impulses, right?
And electrical is impulses are electrons flowing along with the potential difference.
What’s between is this odd-looking device: It’s an antenna, which translates to a “pole” in Latin.
It is silent as the dead, but its scream scan heard for miles.
How does an antenna produce radio waves?
Before we answer this question, let’s take a small detour.
like gravitational waves. electromagnetic waves are fluctuations in the electromagnetic field, propagating as radiant energy.
The existence of the invisible electromagnetic waves predicted through Maxwell’s equations. well before their discovery by Heinrich Hertz.
So, to produce the wave you need to create fluctuations in the electromagnetic field.
And to create those fluctuations, you need electrons moving around in a conductor.
The radio wave act of synthesis choreographed. rhythmic dance of electrons in small copper wires.
Like perturbations in still water that radiate outward from the point of disturbance.
The electron flows in antenna cause perturbations in the electromagnetic field. which radiates out into space like electromagnetic waves.
When you click on send on your favorite messaging application. your mobile OS is set off a chain of events that encoded. The message as a careful send to a particular electron dance.
This dance results in rhythmic ebbs and flows in the electromagnetic field. in the surrounding space, which radiates outward towards a cell to war.
The antenna is for receiving on the cell tower feels. these flows on it are conducting surface, inducing an electron it is very like the one at the transmitter.
This electron is again a set of electric impulses is in tiny copper wires. which decoded by the hardware at the cell tower.
The decoded information through a high throughput cable. for thousands of miles across the country.
And Continents even oceans through transatlantic communications cables.
To the cell tower near to your friend across the ocean of Cellular mobile communication.
From your friends to the tower phone is another wireless jump. And it is finally, your friend hears the familiar communication.
How does the phone well know where the cell tower location? It does not, and it doesn’t need to! Your phone broadcasts your message in all directions for anyone to listen to.
But don not worry, your message will encrypt and only the cell tower can decode your message.
How does the cell tower know that the messages from me?
Well anyone does not think. With every message, you send to particular your friend. you also include a code that identifies your device.
How cell tower differentiate between messages from different phones of different users?
The phones follow all they agree on a protocol to send messages to the particular tower.
You can view network protocol.
The best analogy I have for this is that of a classroom.
In a classroom Imagine with 100 students and only one teacher. Now, all the students start speaking at once at a time, then the teacher is not able to understand any of them.
So, they agree on a protocol. The student does not speak unless they ask, by the teacher to speak.
While students can speak at different times to avoid the interference on any devices.
Can speak at different times, of different frequencies. or different codes is avoiding interference.
Telling me is that the majority of communication is not wireless?
Yes! Unless you are using a Satellite phone.
sender to tower-1, and tower-2 to the receiver.
Communication is between all cell towers.
happens through ultra high-speed communication cables is underground.
But, aren’t cables so out of fashion for the 21st century? Why not use wireless all the way?
The cables we are talking about like that the Transatlantic Cellular mobile communication. cables are definitely very high-tech.
They carry terabytes of the data every few seconds. And do not face the problem of interference as much as wireless counterparts.
Also, you need a lot of satellites to cater to billions of users and their data needs if you want to go wireless all the way. And, launching satellites is expensive.
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